Year 12 — Classics

Term 1: Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey

In term 1, the students are taught Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey concurrently. In the Athenian democracy component, the students learn about late archaic Athens and the inequalities the common Athenians experienced at the hands of the aristocrats. Moreover, the students then learn about the changes to the economy and the political and legal systems in Athens by both Solon and Cleisthenes.

In the Odyssey component, the students study books (chapters) 1, 5, 6 and 7 from Homer's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Athenian Democracy: 20-mark essay question

Odyssey: 10-mark exam question.

Polis

A Greek word often translated as 'city-state'.

Eupatridai

The landowning aristocrats of 7th century Athens.

Archon

An Athenian magistrate.

Archon basileus

The archon responsible for religious matters.

Polemarch

The archon in charge of the Athenian army.

Eponymous archon

The archon responsible for a range of civil matters.

Thesmothetai

The six archons responsible for legal matters.

Homer

An ancient Greek writer and poet.

Epithet

Another name for someone.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The students develop their evaluative essay skills and their literataure analysis techniques.

Create a supportive community:

The students develop their understanding of the social and political inequalities in the ancient world and how compare to social and political inequalities today.

Term 2: Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey

In term 2, the students are taught Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey concurrently. In the Athenian democracy component, the students learn about the separate components of democracy within Athens and the emergence of demagogues. The students will also learn about the early conflict between Athens and Sparta in the 5th century BC.

In the Odyssey component, the students study books (chapters) 8, 9, 10 and 11 from Homer's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes, and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Athenian Democracy: 10-mark exam question

Odyssey: 20-mark essay question

Bouleuterion

The council house in the agora where the Boule met.

Prytany

The name for a month in the ten-month Athenian civil year.

Prytaneis

The fifty members of the one tribe who served as presidents for a civil year.

tholos

The round house in the agora where the prythaneis lived.

Epistates

The chairman of the council for one day.

Ekklesia

The Athenian Assembly.

Pnyx

The hill in Athens where the assembly met.

Parrhesia

The right to speak your mind.

Rhetores

The orators who were the most regular speakers in the assembly.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The students develop their essay writing skills with a focus on concluding judgements. They also further develop their literature analysis skills.

Create a supportive community:

The students develop their understanding of ancient representative and direct democracy and the impact it had on the development of contemporary democracy.

Term 3: Athenian Democracy and Odyssey

In term 3, the students are taught Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey concurrently. In the Athenian democracy component, the students study ancient Greek literature in relation to Athenian democracy. There is a focus on ancient criticism and praise of democracy. The students are tasked with analysing these sources and making judgements on their validity. They are also expected to use historians' interpretations to help them draw conclusions.

In the Odyssey component, the students study books (chapters) 12, 12, 16 and 17 from Homer's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes, and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Athenian Democracy: 20-mark essay question

Odyssey: 10-mark exam question.

Plato

An Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Euripides

An ancient Greek tragedy writer.

Xenophon

An ancient Greek historian.

Herodotus

An ancient Greek historian.

Aeschylus

An ancient Greek tragedy writer.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The students develop their skills in analysing historical sources and comparing them to the wider historical context.

Create a supportive community:

The students develop their understanding of political propaganda on politics and society.

Term 4: Athenian democracy and the Odyssey

In term 4, the students are taught Athenian Democracy and the Odyssey concurrently. In the Athenian democracy component, the students study ancient Greek literature in relation to Athenian democracy. There is a focus on ancient comedy and its satire of democracy. The students are tasked with analysing these sources and making judgements on their validity. They are also expected to use historians' interpretations to help them draw conclusions.

In the Odyssey component, the students study books (chapters) 18, 19, 21, 22 and 23 from Homer's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes, and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Athenian Democracy: 10-mark exam question

Odyssey: 20-mark essay question

satire

Comedy that mocks stereotypes, elites and politicians.

Frogs

A comedy of Aristophanes.

Aristophanes

An ancient Greek comedy writer.

Knights

A comedy of Aristophanes.

Wasps

A comedy of Aristophanes.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The students develop their understanding of ancient literature analysis in relation to political satire.

Create a supportive community:

The students develop their understanding and the impact of propaganda and political satire on society.

Term 5: Greek Theatre and the Aeneid

In term 5, the students will start their Greek Theatre course. The students learn about the nature of theatre in ancient Greece, the different types of comedy and tragedy, and the political messages within ancient Greek plays. Moreover, the students will read and analyse plays from Aeschylus, Euripides and Aristophanes and discuss the rivalry of each of them.

In the Aeneid component, the students study books (chapters) 1, 2, 4 and 5 from Virgil's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes, and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Greek Theatre: 20-mark essay question

Aeneid: 10-mark exam question.

Virgil

Ancient Roman writer.

Aeneas

A Trojan hero who made a journey to Italy to found a new race of people.

Venus

The goddess of love and beauty.

Dido

The queen of Carthage and lover of Aeneas.

Juno

The queen of the gods.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The students develop their analytical skills of ancient Greek theatre.

Create a supportive community:

The students develop their understanding on different culture mixing and the social and political consequences.

Term 6: Greek Theatre and the Aeneid

In term 6, the students will continue their Greek Theatre course. The students learn about the nature of theatre in ancient Greece, the different types of comedy and tragedy, and the political messages within ancient Greek plays. Moreover, the students will read and analyse plays from Aeschylus, Euripides and Aristophanes and discuss the rivalry of each of them.

In the Aeneid component, the students study books (chapters) 6, 7, 8 and 9 from Virgil's epic poem. The students explore the overall narrative of the books, the key themes, and the nature of the characters. The students also explore modern commentators' interpretations of the themes and use them to assist their own judgements.

Aeneid: 20-mark essay question

Greek Theatre: 10-mark exam question.

Dionysus

The god of theatre.

Latins

The people of central Italy.

Turnus

An enemy of Aeneas in Italy.

Tiber

A river in central Italy.

Neptune

The god of the sea.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural

Develop the individual:

The develop the evaluation skills within cause and consequence and significance focused essays.

Create a supportive community:

The develop the understanding of the consequences of war on society.